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2 edition of Alkali treatment of straw. found in the catalog.

Alkali treatment of straw.

Agricultural Development and Advisory Service.

Alkali treatment of straw.

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  • 15 Currently reading

Published by Ministry of Agriculture,Fisheries and Food in Pinner .
Written in English

Edition Notes

SeriesGFG 52
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14122992M

Four treatment diets were arranged in a 2×2 factorial structure with AFEX wheat straw [0 or 30% AFEX straw pellets of diet dry matter (DM) basis replacing alfalfa hay pellets] and fibrolytic enzyme (with or without XYL10C, a β-1,4- xylanase, from Aspergillus niger) as main factors. Enzyme was applied at mg/kg of diet DM 22 h before feeding. Optimization of Alkaline Pretreatment Conditions of Oil Palm Fronds in Improving the Lignocelluloses Contents for Reducing Sugar Production Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 19, No. 1, Moreover, alkali can degrade the ester and glycosidic chains and alter the . The general methods of extraction of alkaloids from the plant sources solely depend upon the purpose and scale of the operation (e.g., pilot scale or commercial scale).It is also based on the quantum and bulk of the raw material to be employed in the operation. Of course, for research purposes column chromatography using ion-exchange resins have been used successfully and effectively to strip.

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Alkali treatment of straw. by Agricultural Development and Advisory Service. Download PDF EPUB FB2

When urea was given, alkali treatment resulted in an increase in voluntary dry-matter intake of 31 g/kg WTs, whereas, when no urea was given, d~-matter intake was depressed by 19 g.

These facts indicate that the effectiveness of alkali treatment depends markedly upon the composition of the diets of which the straw is a by: Alkali pre-treatment removes the acetate groups from hemicellulose, which makes the hemicelluloses more accessible to hydrolytic enzymes.

This enhances digestability. Alkali addition also causes swelling of lignocelluloses, although this is a secondary effect (Kong et al., ). The effectiveness of alkali-acid modification in enhancement the adsorption capacity of rice straw (RS) for removing a basic dye was studied.

The obtained adsorbents were characterized by slurry pH, pH PZC, iodine number, methylene blue number, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) was described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm by: Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H 2 O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H 2 O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2).Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of by: Chapter 4.

Alkaline Treatment. it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.

This book is a. In vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) of wheat straw was increased 29% by chemical treatment with 1% NaOH plus 3% Ca(OH)2 and by as much as 86% by a 4% NaOH plus 1% Ca(OH)2 treatment. Treatment of wheat straw with alkali resulted in larger (P. ALKALINE TREATMENT October Alkaline Treatment of Corn Stover What is it.

Alkaline treatment is an old process dating back to the s in papermaking. It was later discovered that feedstuffs treated with calcium oxide increased cellulose digestibility, improving the feed value of byproducts such as corn stover and straw.

Washing is satisfactory when the water has been renewed and removed 5 times, reducing the NaOH content to 1.

5 g. per kg. treated straw. There was no significant difference between straw treated whole and chopped straw in composition or digestibility by wethers.-I. Leitch.

The convenient and feasible pretreatment method of alkali treatment is very common in the degradation Alkali treatment of straw. book of wheat straw. However, its utilization in the pretreatment of wheat straw as alternative adsorbents for aqueous heavy metals remediation is rarely reported.

The present study investigated the removal efficiency of Cu(II) ions using wheat straw with alkali pretreatment. ability []. Alkali treatment is the most common method in the pretreatment of cellulose, and many studies showed that it could increase the reaction sites and improve the swelling capacity [, ].

What is more important is that the alkali treatment of straw and stalks is convenient and edpressuresteamandbase(NaOH). The potential of two alkali-tolerant, lignocellulolytic environmental enrichment cultures to improve the anaerobic fermentation of Ca(OH)2-pre-treated wheat straw was studied.

Alkali treatment of straw. book The biomethane potential of pre-treated straw was 36% higher than that of untreated straw. The bioaugmentation of pre-treated straw with the enrichment cultures did not enhance the methane yield, but accelerated the. The biorefinery based on an effective and economical process is to fractionate Alkali treatment of straw.

book three primary constituents (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) from lignocellulosic biomass, in which the constituents can be respectively converted into high-value-added products.

In this study, a successive treatment with dilute acid (– % aqueous H2SO4, – °C, – h) and alkali ( The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be improved by various pretreatments of the substrate. In order to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification of the wheat straw, we determined the effect of different pretreatments on the physical structure, chemical components and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.

20 Treatment of Animal Fodder Various methods of improving the digestibility of hay and straw have been considered. Commonly used methods include urea and alkali treatments. Urea treatment increases cellulose - Selection from Microwave and Radio-Frequency Technologies in Agriculture [Book].

The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets’ characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (% and % w/v) and exposed.

Title:Wheat Straw Bio-refining Part II: Optimization of Alkali Pre-treatment Method with Microwave Radiation for Fermentable Sugars Separation VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 4 Author(s):Onome Festus, Vasiliki K. Skoulou and Sharif H. Zein * Affiliation:Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Hull (UoH), Kingston Upon Hull, HU6 7RX.

It shows that the the mechanical properties of PLA/WSF composites are optimal when the sodium hydroxide concentration is % and the alkali treatment temperature is °C.

The contact angles after alkali treatment decrease significantly, indicating that the surface wettability of the treated wheat straw is. Disclosed is a method for cleaning a filtration membrane during when filtration is carried out, which comprises: an alkali treatment step in which an alkaline agent (24) is supplied to raw water (11) for a predetermined period of time and then the raw water (11), to which the alkaline agent (24) has been supplied, is passed through a filtration membrane (15); and a neutralization step in which.

Dilute alkali pre-treatment of wheat straw in high-pressure reactor // Book of Abstracts - 9th International Congress of Food Technologists, Biotechnologists and Nutritionists / Kovačević-Ganić, Karin ; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica ; Balbino, Sandra (ur.). Zagreb: Croatian Society of Food Technologists, Biotechnologists and Nutritionists, str.

(predavanje, međunarodna recenzija. Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at /sup 0/C for 5 minutes and at MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility.

Among the three levels of alkali treatment, the composite made with 3% alkali-treated fiber exhibited superior mechanical properties than the other untreated and treated fiber composites, which pointed to an efficient fiber-matrix adhesion.

The scanning electron microscope was used to observe the surface features of the wheat straw fiber. Cement-bonded straw fiber board made from straw fiber and cement was prepared by semi-dry processing technology to investigate the effect of alkali treatment on the mechanical properties of the board.

Results indicated that, board fabricated with 1% alkali solution treated fiber showed maximum improvement in mechanical properties. After alkali treatment, hemi-celluloses of straw fiber were. Soil alkali; its origin, nature, and treatment [Franklin Stewart Harris] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

This book was originally published prior toand represents a reproduction of an important historical work. Growth and enzymes production by Trichoderma viride were evaluated on wheat straw and alkali treatment wheat straw (wet processing).

The growth of the microorganism (biomass content) shows maximum ( mg/petri dish) on alkali treatment wheat straw compared ( mg/petri dish) on wheat straw during of hours. @article{osti_, title = {Bioconversion of wheat straw to ethanol: chemical modification, enzymic hydrolysis, and fermentation}, author = {Detroy, R W and Lindenfelser, L A and Sommer, S and Orton, W L}, abstractNote = {Native wheat straw (WS) was pretreated with various concentrations of H2SO4 and NaOH followed by secondary treatments with ethylenediamine (EDA) and NH4OH prior to.

The effects of treating soyabean straw with sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide and ensiled at g/kg moisture were evaluated in 3 trials. In trial 1, soyabean straw was treated with alkalis 0 (control), 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/kg DM.

Both in vitro digestibilities of DM and organic matter of soyabean straw were increased (P. It was established that alkali pre-treatment had a substantial effect on the formation and adsorption of AgNPs on the fibers. Alkali pre-treated samples were homogeneously coated by AgNPs with high surface coverage.

Alkali type had significant effect not only on the amount of AgNPs on the surface but also on its size.

Radio-frequency (RF)-based dielectric heating was used in the alkali (NaOH) pre-treatment of switchgrass to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Due to the unique features of RF heating (i.e., volumetric heat transfer, deep heat penetration of the samples, etc.), switchgrass could be treated on a large scale, high solid content, and uniform.

Relationship between the progress of delignification and silica removal from rice straw was studied under various pulping conditions. Alkali pulping and oxygen-alkali pulping were found to remove lignin and silica significantly from pulp, while sulfite and ammonia pulping were found to retain a certain amount of silica in pulp with low lignin content.

When straw was irradiated at dosage of 0, 5 ¥, 5 ¥ and rad, the ISDMD were,and percent, respectively. Treatment of rice straw with a combination of electron irradiation and NaOH also resulted in a considerable higher glucose release (Lu Zhaoxin and Xiong Changren, ).

Alkali-activated binders (AABs) are a material obtained from the combination of a solid precursor and an alkaline activating solution. In this study, one solid precursor used was blast-furnace slag (BFS) and the other was an agro waste: sugar cane straw ash (SCSA).

Sodium hydroxide was used for preparing activating solutions. Alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass produced certain amounts of alkaline-soluble lignin and phenolic compounds in the hydrolyzate, which might bring a negative effect on the alkali reuse for continuous biomass pretreatment.

In the present work, lignin recovery from the alkaline rice straw hydrolyzate by ceramic ultrafiltration was investigated in terms of lignin retention and. Rapid isolation and structural characterization of alkali-soluble lignins during alkaline treatment and atmospheric refining of wheat straw Lawther, R.-C.

Sun, and W.B. Banks Industrial Crops and Products,Volume 5, Number 2, Page Since the objective of this book chapter is to describe value-added products of rice hull and straw, preference will be given to their use as adsorbent material in the following forms: char, activated carbon, ash, and hull or straw, non-modified or modified by chemical treatment.

The first English-language book which reviews and summarizes worldwide research advances in alkali-activated cements and concrete. Essential topics include: raw materials and their properties for the production of the two new types of binder; the hydration and microstructure development of alkali-activated slag cementsFormat: Hardcover.

The alkali–silica reaction (ASR), more commonly known as "concrete cancer", is a swelling reaction that occurs over time in concrete between the highly alkaline cement paste and the reactive non-crystalline silica found in many common aggregates, given sufficient moisture.

This reaction causes the expansion of the altered aggregate by the formation of a soluble and viscous gel of sodium. (chemistry) One of a class of caustic bases, such as soda, soda ash, caustic soda, potash, ammonia, and lithia, whose distinguishing peculiarities are solubility in alcohol and water, uniting with oils and fats to form soap, neutralizing and forming salts with acids, turning to brown several vegetable yellows, and changing reddened litmus to blue.

Alkali, any of the soluble hydroxides of the alkali metals—i.e., lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. Alkalies are strong bases that turn litmus paper from red to blue; they react with acids to yield neutral salts; and they are caustic and in concentrated form are corrosive to organic.

Acid-alkali balance at the end of digestion can be predicted by the mineral content of food: If a food contains lots of chlorides, phosphorous, sulfates, or organic acids, it stimulates the formation of acid.

If a food chemical contains calcium, potassium, magnesium, or sodium, it stimulates the formation of alkali. Straw (wheat, barley, oat, rye, rice) represents the main agricultural crop residue in the world and botanically belongs to the Graminae family.

Cereal straws are lignocelullosic material rich in energy, low in crude protein and poor in palatability.

One characteristic of straw is that it mainly consists of 60–70% carbohydrates (Jackson ). Deng Y., Zhang Z. () Study on Method for Cooking Wheat Straw Pulp at Atmosphere by Microwave Radiation Mixed-Alkali Method. In: Zhang TC., Ouyang P., Kaplan S., Skarnes B.

(eds) Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Biotechnology (ICAB ). Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. The combustion ash of a common nonwood biomass (wheat straw) was evaluated for value-added use in production of geopolymer concrete where alkali aluminosilicate hydrates are the primary binder constituents.

The wheat straw ash was supplemented with other raw materials in order to achieve a desired chemical balance.